WEARING RIGHT NOW



 How and why have blogging and the internet changed fashion journalism?

A study to look at the impact blogging and the web is having on the print fashion journalism industry. It will compare and contrast the benefits and disadvantages of both, analysing a fashion blog as well as a fashion magazine, like fashiontoast.com and Vogue for example, also looking at the rise in online journalism and fall in print. It will also look at texts and videos online that are relevant to the subject. I hope to come up with an outcome that shows how important both aspects of fashion journalism are and perhaps look at how they do/could converge.

Hartley produced an audience theory of self-image[1], a theory concerning what attracts the audience, self image being one that the audience can relate to/ aspire to be like. This relates to the issue concerning how photographs in fashion magazines- Vogue for example, are having impact on what their audience think is achievable in self-image. Most finished published photographs featured in adverts and editorials in Vogue feature models that have been made to look flawless with such vast amounts of retouching done in post-production, making models no bigger than a size six with zero imperfections, of course this isn’t what they actually look like in the flesh, and could be dangerous for young readers trying to emulate how models/ their idols look. Looking at December’s issue for example, features a large editorial spread with singer/ model Rihanna. There are close up shots of her face, however her skin is immaculate, there are zero imperfections and although it does make a stunning photograph, it is not how her face looks in real life. However, fashion blogs feature real girls/women, that’s edit and upload their own photographs, which is having a more positive impact on self-image, giving readers more realistic idols to aspire/ compare themselves to. Some evidence I saw of this was through a Tumblr[2] of Erika Bowes, a successful young blogger, who runs both handfuloffashion.blogspot.com and poisonedcandyfloss.tumblr.com. She frequently gets messages from followers telling her they admire her for not being stick-thin and that they feel she’s an inspirational role model to have.

Blumer & Katz’s uses and gratifications theory[3], Personal Identity, says that we use the certain media outlets for reassurance or self-understanding. This theory could be applied to how fashion blogs are helping define identity in the fashion industry in a more unique way perhaps rather than what is shown in high-fashion magazines. ‘In recent years, the blog has displaced the personal homepage as the primary internet medium for individual professional/unprofessional self-expression.’[4], (Relating to the ‘self-understanding’ part of the theory) Having a successful fashion blog today can get your name out there in the industry and have substantial impacts on a career. The most successful bloggers are now asked along with editors to attend fashion shows and events, a good example of this would be Rumi Neely of fashiontoast.com. Recently she posted about her trip to Tokyo fashion week, where she was invited to many openings and designer’s events, as well as many runway shows including a front row seat on the very prestigious Prada S/S ’12 show[5].

Fashion blogs are an accessible and easy way to access fashion journalism in different ways. Information can be more quickly updated online, and although not always as reliable as a print source, it is free and accessible to everyone. However, many journalists disagree, Journalism Professor Elizabeth Osder stated that ‘there’s an over fascination here with self-expression, with opinion. This is opinion without expertise, without resources without reporting.’[6] But perhaps this could be interpreted as a defence to what she feels as a threat, considering the rise in online journalism and fall in print. The print industry is under much stricter regulation, which means information is checked and generally more trust worthy and accurate. However this brings up a different debate – that because the internet is unregulated then the writer has more freedom and it is possible for audiences to find un- restricted and un-censored information. It’s a known fact in the industry that there is an on-going battle between web/print journalists ‘With journalists having craft and quality on their side and bloggers - the ability to spread the news quickly, though often inaccurately. The two used to be distinct enemies.’[7] This is taken from an article written on the Italian Vogue’s editor’s blog, taking a different approach to it and considering how fashion blogs and magazines could maybe now work together, going on to say how Journalists are not used to listening well whereas bloggers are not trained to provide high quality news. Hence, the need for the two categories to cooperate.’[8]

David Gauntlett is a theorist that has looked at the change of the web during the last 10 years, the development in the web to web 2.0[9], and how social networking and sharing sites have, from a Marxist perspective you could say that power has been given back to the people, the online fashion viewers, rather than being in the hands of the elite, in this case fashion publishing houses. As said in Gauntlett and Horsley’s Web Studies book; ‘blogging is the perfect democratic internet application, giving everyone a platform to express their views’[10]. This quote applies specifically to the blog this study is looking at. Fashiontoast.com is run by blogger Rumi Neely and is one of the most successfully run fashion blogs. Neely is often regarded as the original personal-style blogger and many young bloggers have been inspired by her, with her Bloglovin’ follower count higher than anyone else’s by far[11]. One thing that is so appealing about fashion toast is the fact that it is run by an average girl. The above quote specifically relates to Rumi Neely as she did not have a degree in journalism, or write for any fashion magazine, but made her voice heard just through setting up her blog, which has now gone on to launch her very successful fashion career in regards to modelling and writing. This is a great example of how consumers are becoming producers with the use of new media.

‘A blog is like an online diary illustrating a person’s thoughts and/or experiences through text and photographs’[12] Fashion toast features almost-daily outfit and event posts, as well as wish-list garment posts and photographs from her travels. The photographs posted are always to a high quality, taken with her DSLR, and although you may not find them in a high fashion editorial, the fact that they are more personal, relating to identity and self-image makes them inviting to look at. Most are shot on-location, wherever she it, whether it be a café in Paris or the Mulberry launch party in New York, for example, focusing mainly on her and what she is wearing. The photographs feature many different types of shot, there are close up shots of particular garments or accessories, as well as her face is she is blogging about a particular make up. Throughout the blog there are also shots featuring different types of lenses with interesting frames and fish-eye angles, but the photos are always the same width throughout the blog so each one is cohesive in that sense to the next. Comparing these photographs to the ones used in Vogue magazine there can be comparisons drawn with the quality, and perhaps composition in several photographs. However, there are also many differences between them. Vogue features many studio shot editorials, Terry Richardson’s ‘New York Cool’ shoot as featured in this December’s issue[13]. The photo’s feature various models all shot against a plain white background and retouched elements, for example model Charlotte Free features in a head and shoulders shot, with immaculate skin due to editing in post production.

‘The internet opened a floodgate for young people, whose passions were finally being heard’[14] Her audience relate very much to Hartley’s theory of self-image through her personal photography, they see a normal girl, putting together outfits and photographing them, and then writing about it- something they could easily do themselves, and many of her audience have, for example handfuloffashion.blogspot.com, studsandpeaches.blogspot.com and my own blog, created for my coursework, stylebylucia.blgospot.com was also influenced by some of the photography and layout of fashiontoast.com.

The way the blog has a clean and simple theme, making it easy yet still interesting to look at, with links to different pages and simple font to accompany the text beneath the large-sized photographs, which essentially are the main part of the blog, making a fussy theme/layout needless. Each post features at least one photograph, titled, with some text underneath. Neely’s style of writing is humorous and witty, making it intriguing and maybe more easy to read than a magazine article, yet her use of language shows intellect and keeps it more professional.

Vogue also has a clean and simple similar layout throughout the magazine, but features a lot more headings/sub-headings and pictures. I find that the photographs are presented similarly, fitting together exactly and most taking up an entire page, borderless. Rihanna’s recent interview and editorial in the December issue is a brilliant example. The opening page features a photograph of her, along with text in a simple and easy to read font, similarly to fashiontoast. The sub headings are often in italic, and although the font is basic the switch to italic makes it more interesting to look at. There are also snippets of the same font throughout the article to draw out certain quotes from the interview. Each article has the same lay out, three columns of text per each a4 page, usually having a photograph taking up the entire mirrored page. This lay out makes the magazine look organised and inviting.

A video produced by net-a-porter.com[15], has interesting opinions on how blogging is changing fashion from both writers and bloggers point of view, for example Jackie Dixon of This Is My Wardobe states that ‘there is room for bloggers, stylists and writers alike’ and that it shouldn’t be such a ‘closed enviroment’. This shows that although there is potential for such people/ companies to converge there are not many willing to do so. Bloggers Catherine Callon, state that ‘We get the news out faster’ and Natalie Hartley, ‘there are no restrictions, you can be more creative’ as well as Hanneli Mustaparta putting across the point that ‘a blog doest cost anything, you can look at as many of your favourite blogs as you like, but perhaps only buy one or two fashion magazines’ some evidence as to why the a blog may be more inviting than a magazine, and why there is an increase/ decrease between the two.

Through the web and print journalism, there are also benefits/ disadvantages concerning user-generated content, synergy and convergence and how this affects both the audience and user. Readers are much more easily able to communicate and generate content on a fashion blog than they are in a fashion magazine.

For example, on Rumi Neely’s blog, fashiontoast.com, on each post, you are able to comment on it (each post usually reaching 100-200 comments or over on fashion toast specifically) or share via hundreds of other social/blogging/photo sites. It also features a ‘tweet’ button, which allows you to share the post straight to your twitter feed. And, for those who don’t have twitter, there is a ‘share’ link that enables you to share her post on your own blog, Blogspot or Tumblr for example, or onto Facebook or many other social networking sites. The fact that so much user-generated content is enabled makes blogging something that is a lot more personal and easy relatable to the audience than a magazine, the fact that they can converse with each other and sometimes the writer/blogger themselves. Tim O’Rielly argued that ‘the activities of users generating content (in the form of ideas, text, videos, or pictures) could be "harnessed" to create value’[16]. Such volume of user generated content, can prove to make the blog successful, the more shared posts for example, the more traffic and activity the blog will get. Through the user generated content, blogging enables websites to use synergy; social networking sites and links to other blogs for example, are promoted through links on fashion toast’s blog and with posts shared there is a mutual benefit for each company.

There is also use of synergy in Vogue magazine, through advertising campaigns and Vogue promotions as well as sponsorship for fashion events/ shows. Sometimes Vogue will feature reviews in ‘books’ or ‘film’ sections, for example, and their comments/ratings would be featured in promotions/ information of such things, promoting their name.

Vogue, however does not feature any user generated content, bar the occasional article featuring readers style and comments as featured in last year’s august issue[17], but is not a frequent article, like Grazia’s Style Hunter[18], for example, which contains double page spread of four reader’s photographs and comments about fashion/ what they are wearing, a regular in each of the weekly magazine. Vogue also features no reader’s letters page, something that many fashion magazines actually include, so there is a severe lack of user-generated content. However, this is somewhat compensated for on their website, but again having nothing in their magazines draws readers to the web. ‘Slowly but noticeably the old media (print) are becoming faster, more transparent, more interactive- not because they want to be; because they have to be.’[19] As said by Reason Magazine editor Jesse Walker. The new media is currently more dominant than ever, and literally everyone is going online, even politics for example, president Obama has made his own Youtube channel to share campaigns and his personal speeches to the public[20]. The internet is now part of our everyday lives, as we are able to produce, upload, and share so easily and even through mobile phone devices. Vogue.com has become quite an important and necessary part of the company’s franchise, with the competition of online journalism it is important for Vogue to have placement in the online world. They have also made a very beneficial adaptation to the interactive world, by creating an app for the iPad, an example of convergence, and how Vogue is adapting to new media. Readers are able to look at the magazine page by page from their device rather than carrying around a magazine, also enabling them to magnify certain text or images, something more user friendly for the modern world. However, many readers prefer to actually hold and be able to flick through the glossy pages.

 ‘They (old & new media) complimented each other. They were part of the same eco system… the new outlets aren’t displacing the old ones; they’re transforming them.’[21] This quote the attitude from print journalists towards online journalism is perhaps changing, and how the online world is beneficial for their companies.




Bibliography

Katz, Elihu, Jay G. Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch. ‘Uses and Gratifications Research.’ The Public Opinion Quarterly $th ser. 37 (1973-1974): 509-23. JSTOR. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. 
H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one, p11
Vogue, December 2011, Conde Nast publications
Vogue, August 2010, Conde Nast publications
Grazia, 23 Jan 2012,  Bauer London Lifestyle publications, pages 82-83

Filmography
Webography


[1] Hartley, Audience theories
[3] Katz, Elihu, Jay G. Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch. ‘Uses and Gratifications Research.’ The Public Opinion Quarterly $th ser. 37 (1973-1974): 509-23. JSTOR. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
[4] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
[6] Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one, p11
[9]  Tim O’Rielly, via Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education
[10] Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one, p11
[12] Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one,p11
[13]  Vogue, December 2011, Conde Nast publications
[14] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
[16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0
[17]  Vogue, August 2010, Conde Nast publications
[18] (example of a weekly spread) Grazia, 23 Jan 2012,  Bauer London Lifestyle publications, pages 82-83
[19] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
[21] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,


 How and why have blogging and the internet changed fashion journalism?

A study to look at the impact blogging and the web is having on the print fashion journalism industry. It will compare and contrast the benefits and disadvantages of both, analysing a fashion blog as well as a fashion magazine, like fashiontoast.com and Vogue for example, also looking at the rise in online journalism and fall in print. It will also look at texts and videos online that are relevant to the subject. I hope to come up with an outcome that shows how important both aspects of fashion journalism are and perhaps look at how they do/could converge.

Hartley produced an audience theory of self-image[1], a theory concerning what attracts the audience, self image being one that the audience can relate to/ aspire to be like. This relates to the issue concerning how photographs in fashion magazines- Vogue for example, are having impact on what their audience think is achievable in self-image. Most finished published photographs featured in adverts and editorials in Vogue feature models that have been made to look flawless with such vast amounts of retouching done in post-production, making models no bigger than a size six with zero imperfections, of course this isn’t what they actually look like in the flesh, and could be dangerous for young readers trying to emulate how models/ their idols look. Looking at December’s issue for example, features a large editorial spread with singer/ model Rihanna. There are close up shots of her face, however her skin is immaculate, there are zero imperfections and although it does make a stunning photograph, it is not how her face looks in real life. However, fashion blogs feature real girls/women, that’s edit and upload their own photographs, which is having a more positive impact on self-image, giving readers more realistic idols to aspire/ compare themselves to. Some evidence I saw of this was through a Tumblr[2] of Erika Bowes, a successful young blogger, who runs both handfuloffashion.blogspot.com and poisonedcandyfloss.tumblr.com. She frequently gets messages from followers telling her they admire her for not being stick-thin and that they feel she’s an inspirational role model to have.

Blumer & Katz’s uses and gratifications theory[3], Personal Identity, says that we use the certain media outlets for reassurance or self-understanding. This theory could be applied to how fashion blogs are helping define identity in the fashion industry in a more unique way perhaps rather than what is shown in high-fashion magazines. ‘In recent years, the blog has displaced the personal homepage as the primary internet medium for individual professional/unprofessional self-expression.’[4], (Relating to the ‘self-understanding’ part of the theory) Having a successful fashion blog today can get your name out there in the industry and have substantial impacts on a career. The most successful bloggers are now asked along with editors to attend fashion shows and events, a good example of this would be Rumi Neely of fashiontoast.com. Recently she posted about her trip to Tokyo fashion week, where she was invited to many openings and designer’s events, as well as many runway shows including a front row seat on the very prestigious Prada S/S ’12 show[5].

Fashion blogs are an accessible and easy way to access fashion journalism in different ways. Information can be more quickly updated online, and although not always as reliable as a print source, it is free and accessible to everyone. However, many journalists disagree, Journalism Professor Elizabeth Osder stated that ‘there’s an over fascination here with self-expression, with opinion. This is opinion without expertise, without resources without reporting.’[6] But perhaps this could be interpreted as a defence to what she feels as a threat, considering the rise in online journalism and fall in print. The print industry is under much stricter regulation, which means information is checked and generally more trust worthy and accurate. However this brings up a different debate – that because the internet is unregulated then the writer has more freedom and it is possible for audiences to find un- restricted and un-censored information. It’s a known fact in the industry that there is an on-going battle between web/print journalists ‘With journalists having craft and quality on their side and bloggers - the ability to spread the news quickly, though often inaccurately. The two used to be distinct enemies.’[7] This is taken from an article written on the Italian Vogue’s editor’s blog, taking a different approach to it and considering how fashion blogs and magazines could maybe now work together, going on to say how Journalists are not used to listening well whereas bloggers are not trained to provide high quality news. Hence, the need for the two categories to cooperate.’[8]

David Gauntlett is a theorist that has looked at the change of the web during the last 10 years, the development in the web to web 2.0[9], and how social networking and sharing sites have, from a Marxist perspective you could say that power has been given back to the people, the online fashion viewers, rather than being in the hands of the elite, in this case fashion publishing houses. As said in Gauntlett and Horsley’s Web Studies book; ‘blogging is the perfect democratic internet application, giving everyone a platform to express their views’[10]. This quote applies specifically to the blog this study is looking at. Fashiontoast.com is run by blogger Rumi Neely and is one of the most successfully run fashion blogs. Neely is often regarded as the original personal-style blogger and many young bloggers have been inspired by her, with her Bloglovin’ follower count higher than anyone else’s by far[11]. One thing that is so appealing about fashion toast is the fact that it is run by an average girl. The above quote specifically relates to Rumi Neely as she did not have a degree in journalism, or write for any fashion magazine, but made her voice heard just through setting up her blog, which has now gone on to launch her very successful fashion career in regards to modelling and writing. This is a great example of how consumers are becoming producers with the use of new media.

‘A blog is like an online diary illustrating a person’s thoughts and/or experiences through text and photographs’[12] Fashion toast features almost-daily outfit and event posts, as well as wish-list garment posts and photographs from her travels. The photographs posted are always to a high quality, taken with her DSLR, and although you may not find them in a high fashion editorial, the fact that they are more personal, relating to identity and self-image makes them inviting to look at. Most are shot on-location, wherever she it, whether it be a café in Paris or the Mulberry launch party in New York, for example, focusing mainly on her and what she is wearing. The photographs feature many different types of shot, there are close up shots of particular garments or accessories, as well as her face is she is blogging about a particular make up. Throughout the blog there are also shots featuring different types of lenses with interesting frames and fish-eye angles, but the photos are always the same width throughout the blog so each one is cohesive in that sense to the next. Comparing these photographs to the ones used in Vogue magazine there can be comparisons drawn with the quality, and perhaps composition in several photographs. However, there are also many differences between them. Vogue features many studio shot editorials, Terry Richardson’s ‘New York Cool’ shoot as featured in this December’s issue[13]. The photo’s feature various models all shot against a plain white background and retouched elements, for example model Charlotte Free features in a head and shoulders shot, with immaculate skin due to editing in post production.

‘The internet opened a floodgate for young people, whose passions were finally being heard’[14] Her audience relate very much to Hartley’s theory of self-image through her personal photography, they see a normal girl, putting together outfits and photographing them, and then writing about it- something they could easily do themselves, and many of her audience have, for example handfuloffashion.blogspot.com, studsandpeaches.blogspot.com and my own blog, created for my coursework, stylebylucia.blgospot.com was also influenced by some of the photography and layout of fashiontoast.com.

The way the blog has a clean and simple theme, making it easy yet still interesting to look at, with links to different pages and simple font to accompany the text beneath the large-sized photographs, which essentially are the main part of the blog, making a fussy theme/layout needless. Each post features at least one photograph, titled, with some text underneath. Neely’s style of writing is humorous and witty, making it intriguing and maybe more easy to read than a magazine article, yet her use of language shows intellect and keeps it more professional.

Vogue also has a clean and simple similar layout throughout the magazine, but features a lot more headings/sub-headings and pictures. I find that the photographs are presented similarly, fitting together exactly and most taking up an entire page, borderless. Rihanna’s recent interview and editorial in the December issue is a brilliant example. The opening page features a photograph of her, along with text in a simple and easy to read font, similarly to fashiontoast. The sub headings are often in italic, and although the font is basic the switch to italic makes it more interesting to look at. There are also snippets of the same font throughout the article to draw out certain quotes from the interview. Each article has the same lay out, three columns of text per each a4 page, usually having a photograph taking up the entire mirrored page. This lay out makes the magazine look organised and inviting.

A video produced by net-a-porter.com[15], has interesting opinions on how blogging is changing fashion from both writers and bloggers point of view, for example Jackie Dixon of This Is My Wardobe states that ‘there is room for bloggers, stylists and writers alike’ and that it shouldn’t be such a ‘closed enviroment’. This shows that although there is potential for such people/ companies to converge there are not many willing to do so. Bloggers Catherine Callon, state that ‘We get the news out faster’ and Natalie Hartley, ‘there are no restrictions, you can be more creative’ as well as Hanneli Mustaparta putting across the point that ‘a blog doest cost anything, you can look at as many of your favourite blogs as you like, but perhaps only buy one or two fashion magazines’ some evidence as to why the a blog may be more inviting than a magazine, and why there is an increase/ decrease between the two.

Through the web and print journalism, there are also benefits/ disadvantages concerning user-generated content, synergy and convergence and how this affects both the audience and user. Readers are much more easily able to communicate and generate content on a fashion blog than they are in a fashion magazine.

For example, on Rumi Neely’s blog, fashiontoast.com, on each post, you are able to comment on it (each post usually reaching 100-200 comments or over on fashion toast specifically) or share via hundreds of other social/blogging/photo sites. It also features a ‘tweet’ button, which allows you to share the post straight to your twitter feed. And, for those who don’t have twitter, there is a ‘share’ link that enables you to share her post on your own blog, Blogspot or Tumblr for example, or onto Facebook or many other social networking sites. The fact that so much user-generated content is enabled makes blogging something that is a lot more personal and easy relatable to the audience than a magazine, the fact that they can converse with each other and sometimes the writer/blogger themselves. Tim O’Rielly argued that ‘the activities of users generating content (in the form of ideas, text, videos, or pictures) could be "harnessed" to create value’[16]. Such volume of user generated content, can prove to make the blog successful, the more shared posts for example, the more traffic and activity the blog will get. Through the user generated content, blogging enables websites to use synergy; social networking sites and links to other blogs for example, are promoted through links on fashion toast’s blog and with posts shared there is a mutual benefit for each company.

There is also use of synergy in Vogue magazine, through advertising campaigns and Vogue promotions as well as sponsorship for fashion events/ shows. Sometimes Vogue will feature reviews in ‘books’ or ‘film’ sections, for example, and their comments/ratings would be featured in promotions/ information of such things, promoting their name.

Vogue, however does not feature any user generated content, bar the occasional article featuring readers style and comments as featured in last year’s august issue[17], but is not a frequent article, like Grazia’s Style Hunter[18], for example, which contains double page spread of four reader’s photographs and comments about fashion/ what they are wearing, a regular in each of the weekly magazine. Vogue also features no reader’s letters page, something that many fashion magazines actually include, so there is a severe lack of user-generated content. However, this is somewhat compensated for on their website, but again having nothing in their magazines draws readers to the web. ‘Slowly but noticeably the old media (print) are becoming faster, more transparent, more interactive- not because they want to be; because they have to be.’[19] As said by Reason Magazine editor Jesse Walker. The new media is currently more dominant than ever, and literally everyone is going online, even politics for example, president Obama has made his own Youtube channel to share campaigns and his personal speeches to the public[20]. The internet is now part of our everyday lives, as we are able to produce, upload, and share so easily and even through mobile phone devices. Vogue.com has become quite an important and necessary part of the company’s franchise, with the competition of online journalism it is important for Vogue to have placement in the online world. They have also made a very beneficial adaptation to the interactive world, by creating an app for the iPad, an example of convergence, and how Vogue is adapting to new media. Readers are able to look at the magazine page by page from their device rather than carrying around a magazine, also enabling them to magnify certain text or images, something more user friendly for the modern world. However, many readers prefer to actually hold and be able to flick through the glossy pages.

 ‘They (old & new media) complimented each other. They were part of the same eco system… the new outlets aren’t displacing the old ones; they’re transforming them.’[21] This quote the attitude from print journalists towards online journalism is perhaps changing, and how the online world is beneficial for their companies.




Bibliography

Katz, Elihu, Jay G. Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch. ‘Uses and Gratifications Research.’ The Public Opinion Quarterly $th ser. 37 (1973-1974): 509-23. JSTOR. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. 
H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one, p11
Vogue, December 2011, Conde Nast publications
Vogue, August 2010, Conde Nast publications
Grazia, 23 Jan 2012,  Bauer London Lifestyle publications, pages 82-83

Filmography
Webography


[1] Hartley, Audience theories
[3] Katz, Elihu, Jay G. Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch. ‘Uses and Gratifications Research.’ The Public Opinion Quarterly $th ser. 37 (1973-1974): 509-23. JSTOR. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
[4] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
[6] Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one, p11
[9]  Tim O’Rielly, via Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education
[10] Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one, p11
[12] Gauntlett D + Horsley R, Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004, Hodder Education, chapter one,p11
[13]  Vogue, December 2011, Conde Nast publications
[14] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
[16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0
[17]  Vogue, August 2010, Conde Nast publications
[18] (example of a weekly spread) Grazia, 23 Jan 2012,  Bauer London Lifestyle publications, pages 82-83
[19] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,
[21] H Jenkins, Convergence Culture, 2008, NYU Publications,

2 comments

  1. Enjoyed reading this. Sometimes I wish I had studied something fashion/journalism orientated! You look amazing too. x

    ReplyDelete
  2. Trẻ em bị bệnh thuỷ đậu nên ăn gì?Bệnh thủy đậu đang vào mùa và trẻ em là đối tượng dễ bị nhiễm bệnh nhất do khả năng miễn dịch yếu.
    Tuổi dậy thì của con gái là gì?Tuổi dậy thì là một giai đoạn quan trọng trong cuộc đời một con người, trong giai đoạn này có nhiều biến động về tâm sinh lý ở trẻ.
    Tác dụng của hạt sen tươi và hạt sen khôHạt sen là một thực phẩm được rất nhiều người yêu thích. Tuy nhiên, không phải ai cũng biết và khám phá hết những công dụng tuyệt vời của hạt sen.
    Nhung hươu tươi có tác dụng gì?Ở loài hươu có một bộ phận có khả năng tái sinh trọn vẹn, đó chính là sừng hươu. Đây là cấu trúc lớn được tạo thành từ xương và tăng trưởng hằng năm, chết đi, rụng xuống và rồi lại tái sinh
    Anh chàng hài độc thoại dưa leo là ai?Anh chàng hài độc thoại dưa leo là ai? có lẻ không còn lạ lẫm với các bạn trẻ chúng ta phải không nhỉ? Không phải là một nhân vật đình đám trong làng điện ảnh, showbiz nhưng cái tên Dưa Leo luôn được nhiều người biết đến
    Dưa leo có tác dụng gì cho da mặt?Dưa leo hay còn gọi là dưa chuột, là thực phẩm có thể nói không còn gì xa lạ với bất kì ai. Dưa leo không chỉ là thực phẩm tươi mát, ngon rẻ mà nó được xem là nguyên liệu làm đẹp tuyệt vời dành cho các chị em.
    Uống nước dừa nhiều có mập không?Ngoài ra, nước dừa còn mang lại nhiều tác dụng cho sức khỏe. Cùng xem bài viết sau đây để hiểu rõ hơn vấn đề này nhé!
    Uống nước dừa khi có kinh có sao không?Nước dừa có thể nói được xem là nước khoáng tự nhiên, vô cùng bổ mát, tốt cho sức khỏe. Tuy nhiên, không phải ai cũng uống nước dừa được
    Viêm kết mạc mắt ở trẻ em kiêng ăn gì?Viêm kết mạc ở trẻ em là một trong những tình trạng bệnh lý gây đỏ mắt do nhiều nguyên nhân gây nên, bao gồm: vi khuẩn, virut, Chlamydia và viêm dị ứng
    Viêm kết mạc có lây không bao lâu thì khỏi ?Bệnh cấp tính, trẻ ngứa mắt nhiều, chảy nước mắt, đỏ mắt phối hợp ngứa mũi, hắt hơi sổ mũi, chảy nước mũi trong. Mi mắt phù nề, kết mạc phù, nhợt màu, nhú viêm trên kết mạc.
    Người bị suy nhược cơ thể nên ăn gì?Trong thời buổi hiện nay việc cơm áo gạo tiền vẩn đang là gánh nặng của nhiều người. Chạy đua với thời gian, chạy đua với công việc, nhiều tác động và nhiều yếu tố bên ngoài có thể làm ta đau đầu phiền não.

    ReplyDelete

Contact

© STYLE CONFESSIONAL
Design by The Basic Page
//]]>